Microfabrication has gained immense importance in hardware based industries as most companies dealing with Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing find it to be of utmost importance. However, microfabrication techniques are critical and require specialized instruments dedicated to the development of high-end products.
Electroplating is one of the most common procedures utilized in day-to-day life, but details of which often go unnoticed. It has numerous applications in industries where a protective coating on different materials is necessary, in jewellery production and in very specialized areas such as Integrated Circuit (IC) fabrication techniques, which is the current topic of discussion. Since, this is a rather unexplored area; this article would give the readers an insight regarding the basic procedure of electroplating.
Resistors shape the most fundamental and significant constituent among the group of lumped circuit elements. Resistors are the most ordinarily utilized segment as a part of hardware and their motivation is to make determined estimations of current and voltage in a circuit. A resistor can be characterized as a passive two-terminal electrical component that offers electrical resistance as a circuit component. Being a passive element, resistors convey the prime usefulness of offering resistance/impedance to the way of free current stream. Continue reading
As the name suggests, transmission line establishes connection between the signal source and destination by providing a dedicated path for signal passage. As far as communication and electronics engineering is concerned, a transmission line can be defined as a specialized cable designed to carry/transport alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with frequency high enough such that their wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, distributing cable television signals, trunklines routing calls between telephone switching centres, computer network connections and high speed computer data buses.